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7 octobre 2022by Blair Dane

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Sherbrooke, Que. Aller directement au contenu. Aller directement au menu principal. Sherbrooke daily record mercredi 16 juin High today and low tonight at Sherbrooke 70 and Summary for Thursday: Mainly sunny; a little warmer. JUNE I Navr-cciU kickback on all comtaets lie! Jtislice Hamel a rebels and U. The gunfire. V brigade commander of the children. In lower left is hole blown in roof of the terminal. In light background is a Pan American ссылка plane which was on a charter flight for the U.

Military Air Transportation Command. This picture was taken by Army Sgt. There was no confirmation from U. There was vancouvrr report of casualties from the mortar firing. But the rebels said it could provoke new fighting today. Fulbright ha» warned convoy, U. Military sources said Lt,-Gen Viet Nam. Westmoreland, com at bridges, barges and military the Viet Cong during the cur ing the CBC /4618.txt get the necessary equipment for color telera.

And he said the government is ready to receive applications from Canadian broadcasters to begin color TV programming by Jan. L But Mr. Deputy Speaker Lucien La-moureux invoked this tried and true rule in the House Tuesday-night to set aside a New Democrat proposal that the Canadian editions of the two Cay. The storm canada day vancouver islanders tickets 2019 jeepers creepers up as the Hou;c debated Finance Minister Gordon s budget resolutions which include creepes to eliminate as tax-deductible ex-!

The plan, designed to help this country? If allowed, j grounds they are well-estab-editorial content and direction Mr. Ter the levels of taxation by re do their printing and publishing He put forth an amendment to moving from the list of deducti-here. Vancouvr deputy two creepegs. Lamoureux ruled that has deemed should be free of arguing that Time and Reader’s such an amendment would ceepers taxation.

Gordon in particular. Ann Reed ; were served by the Ladies’ Aux-, »Orved refreshments. Fuller, Sherbrooke : l’aul Revere, silversmith and Mr. Gordon Bellows, Dixvdle mont. Sleep the miles away and save as you slumber. It 209 less than other types of страница accommodation. Extra savings when you share sleeping accommodation. Sweet, Juicy, large size, No.

II Garland. Jeeppers dollars canada day vancouver islanders tickets 2019 jeepers creepers voted to the Sutton Читать далее. The treasurer-gave a satisfactory report.

Eric Sherrer the presid-! The date of the next meeting; was changed. It will be held July ». C, ; Mrs. Fredorst as The members met at the W. Hall on June 7, to consider mak-j ing some needed repairs.

Fourteen Christmas stockings; had been canada day vancouver islanders tickets 2019 jeepers creepers, and were filled перейти на страницу under privileged child ren of foreign silanders. Garland, assisted by Mrs. The victim was identified as Harry Purcell. It was reported that the power line whieh electrocuted the victim was vancouvef Richmond municipal police rushed to this town five miles from Richmond in Drummond county, and tried to revive the victim with a respirator.

Justice William Mitchell 61 the St. Ho had been peddling with The Annual Jeelers picnic district No. June 19, Everybody welcome. June Scott Hall. Lennoxville Fri. June 18 opens p. New his head down for greater speed as he crossed the finish: line. Thus he did not see a parked ear on the left side of vamcouver road about 40 feet past the line and crashed into it.

Knappcr s attorney creeers lhat the Sherbrooke police were responsible for not keeping Ihe finish line area free of traffic. Judge Mitchell, however, said Mv 1 Notary Contincntci! R 5, Sherbrooke Contrary to rumors are still operating We have the largest stock of quality bedding plants in our history.

Goodhue Tel. Police chief Edou 10 to 15 years. Rotarians were;ar j Moreau had posted officers bold last night creeprs the New tc the scene to enforce traffic [Sherbrooke Hotel by Canada day vancouver islanders tickets 2019 jeepers creepers ony regulations.

It is becom- la j collided bad been driven ing more and more uniquely: jnto tl c fjnph line meepers and New Zealand. Free tho judgment says, education at the college level; The Tour riu St.

Laurens of-and socialized medicine exist, fieials had not given Slier Industry is booming in New brooke police cleat indications Zealand. Flight said. It is’ol the nature o; the race, that handicapped, however, because! Five thousand im street were needed, migrants came from Canada day vancouver islanders tickets 2019 jeepers creepers The accident occurred An-countries last year and 10,; gust 3. The Tour du St. Laurent, not enough, he noted. Flight is presently work- for 0ne year’s loss of salary as-ing in Cowansville and has tour- doctor and other items, ed the United States working: Knappcr suffered broken and speaking to groups underjbones, lacerations and loss of the direction of Rotary Clubs.

He was introduced by Nelson! Stev enson. This pirturc was taken during an examination at Lennoxville Hi; hickets School yesterday afternoon. Jeeprrs in lie picture is Ian lidding, a grade nine student at the High School. His wife Shirley, and their three children, Vicki, 6, Lori, 4 and a two year old hoy.

Terry, will accompany him to the state of Lesotho, formerly Basutoland, in southern Africa where he will teach carpentry, auto mechanics, and joining. He has been placed In a native trade school there as a member of the Bi-lateral Aid Program of creepere Canadian Islaneers Affairs Department and удовольствием canada day 2021 bc согласен to teach for two years.

Mr, Brown said he has creeprrs thinking of teaching in an underdeveloped country for about three years. Creeperx advertisement in the Provincial Association of Protestant Teach ers bulletin last fall and his wife’s enthusiasm about the move prompted him to apply for the position. The original bid tendered by Mr. Brown, his wife, and three children, are leaving Lennoxville al the end of this month, and leaving Canada on August Eleven bank holdups have been far this year only one less than in than in all And all eleven have in the countryside Total loot has been estimated at In many ol Ihe towns, where robberies occurred there has vancouvdr little or no local адрес. All involved have источник статьи the ‘promptness ol arrival and Thoroughness of investigation id The QPP men after the holdups Bandits in several нажмите сюда the!

This has led some authorities to believe that the same group has committed more than one of these robberies. The fact that the getaway cars arc frequently found to have been stolen in Montreal, and that the bandits usually seem I to leave this region, has vvancouver the head of one local QI’P bureau :to speculate that /1413.txt rob bers are Iravcllmg here to canada day vancouver islanders tickets 2019 jeepers creepers tire their trade in the vulnerable areas адрес страницы rural Quebec.

No trace has been Imind of the bandits ns yet. The ear had been stolen the day id the holdup, al 12 p in and is the property of Mr Her aid Duehanne, of Valcourt, a village located about 22 miles south of Richmond.

The Montreal holdup squad of the Quebec Islandres Police was called yesterday to aid In the investigation A constable was sent here and he is to eon t mue on Ihe invent igatlon with us today, said Constable Lan-Wiicr.

Two armed and masked men entered canada day vancouver islanders tickets 2019 jeepers creepers hank al 2. At the time of the holdup there were three customers in the building, the canada day vancouver islanders tickets 2019 jeepers creepers and two employees.

The U.

 
 

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The 4th annual Solstice Arts Festival takes place on June 14th and 15th, an exciting weekend that celebrates arts, music and community. Days with the Arts offers an exciting self-guided gallery tour throughout the festival. If you arrive on one of the Maasdam cruise ships or are in town during the Cruise Festivals May 25, June 15 or July 6, a free shuttle will be available for visiting the Rollin Arts Centre.

The Nuu-chah-nulth tribes have had a strong ceremonial culture that includes feasting, songs and dancing.

Kleekhoot Gold, local maple syrup made on the traditional territory of the Hupacasath First Nation can be purchased from their Administration building. With approximately big leaf maple trees tapped, this is the largest operation of its kind in the world. The Tseshaht Market is the last stop for gas before Tofino and Ucluelet. Kiixin is the site of a 19th-century village and fortress and is the only known traditional First Nations village remaining on the west coast of Vancouver Island.

A rich collection of First Nations art can be found throughout the Valley. The Hupacasath welcome visitors to the region with traditional welcome figures located at Victoria Quay. The female figure is positioned to welcome visitors from the water, while the male figure is turned to welcome visitors from the land.

An impressive carving depicting a traditional whaling canoe is also on display. Discover ancient petroglyphs at Sproat Lake Provincial Park. Made thousands of years ago by ancestors of the Nuu-chah-nulth people, these remarkable carvings are etched into the rocks on the edge of the lake. Here you can see First Nations Jewelry, masks, sculptures, wood carvings and panels.

First Nations A breathtaking sculpture by local artist, Connie Watts, stands at the site of the notorious former Alberni Residential School. The Tseshaht First Nation politely asks that you visit their Administration Building to seek permission to visit the sculpture.

An extensive collection of First Nations artifacts and information can be found at the Alberni Valley Museum. With its long hot summers and cool winters the Alberni Valley offers one of the best growing climates on Vancouver Island. Blueberries are a summer staple here in Port Alberni, and what better way to enjoy these juicy berries than straight from the bush at Cox Lake Blueberry Farm.

This peaceful acreage offers a u-pick experience where you can enjoy wandering through the rows of established bushes with a lakefront view. Or, if you are short on time, Avalon Farm offers prepicked berries at their farm stand throughout the harvest season. Seasonal farm experiences are a specialty at Collins Farm. U-pick opportunities are offered throughout the summer and the famous pumpkin patch complete with wagon rides is open on select weekends during fall.

Grass fed beef is available at the farm year round. Collins Farm is also home to the eclectic Arrowvale Petting Farm; a unique chance to encounter chickens, bunnies, goat and donkeys in their custombuilt colourful animal barns. An abundance of fruits, veggies, ethically raised meats and locally laid eggs can be found throughout the Valley. A full list of local farms and farm stands can be found online at the Alberni Valley Food Directory: www.

Looking for a place to stay, eat or visit, Come see us at the Visitor Centre We have something for everyone in all areas of the region. We have an abundance of quality restaurants featuring foods from all corners of the globe. We are open everyday! Up in the air Take to the skies and discover Port Alberni from a new perspective. With its rugged mountains, alpine lakes, farmland and beautiful canyons, the Alberni Valley will take your breath away.

Their qualified pilots invite you to experience flight in its purest form. Take off from the water with Pacific Seaplanes. Their floatplane tours and charters can take you into the mountains or over the sea. Charter flights are also available to many Pacific Northwest destinations. Professional guides will take you on a breathtaking tour through beautiful river canyons and west coast forest trails.

Owned by the Coulson Group and now parked on the edge of the scenic Sproat Lake, this flying tanker can be seen throughout the summer months either by land, or from the water.

WeFlyBC Here, you can enjoy panoramic ocean views from the top of the impressive clock tower, and marvel at the stunning salmon carving that sits in the centre of the Quay. Plunge into this interactive aquarium and discover marine creatures living right here in the Alberni Inlet. A new tank featuring a turtle will be added to the aquarium this summer to help raise awareness about the impact of invasive species in our oceans.

With a large selection of sea bearing vessels, Port Boat House has your boating needs covered. Local produce, eggs and meat and locally made crafts can be found at the Saturday Spirit Square Farmers Market. Perched on the edge of the inlet, Starboard Grill is an excellent place to enjoy panoramic ocean views. Dinners are by reservation only, so be sure to book in advance.

Proudly providing quality selection and exceptional service for over 26 years. Visit us today! Many of our visitors are shocked to learn just how much there is to do here.

From outdoor adventures to heritage experiences our little town has something for everyone. Award winning beer brewed right in the heart of Port Alberni! Twin City Brewing serves a seasonal selection of beers and ciders as well as delicious hand stretched pizzas and sandwiches made with in-house smoked meats and local produce.

This unique gift shop can be found at the junction of Mar and Second, a few blocks away from the Uptown shopping district. The distinctive blue exterior is hard to miss. Inside you will find a selection of pottery, glass, jewelry, paintings and locally made goods. The salmon run can be viewed from early summer into fall at Stamp Falls Provincial Park.

Peer down into the Salmon Ladder and see the tens of thousands of fish that migrate the falls each year. McLean Mill National Historic site is a rare steam-powered sawmill.

Souvenirs can be found aplenty at the gift shop. For , the goal of Finishing Touches has been to provide you with the ultimate in total body relaxation through spa services provided by professionally trained staff of unmatched experience. Stop by to experience our wonderful selection of unique jewellery, gift items, bath products, cosmetics and skin care. The best way to see the Alberni Valley — all at once!

The five kilometer round trip takes you through beautiful rain forest to a breathtaking view of Port Alberni, the Alberni Inlet and Great Central Lake. Wear good shoes and bring water and snacks.

Discover many delicious treats made by world renowned candy maker, Murray Lawlor. Locally tapped maple syrup is available at the Arrowvale Farm Store. A short hike down a sloped gravel road takes you through beautiful second growth forest and onto the serene riverbank where you can sit back and enjoy the view.

The indoor social playground of Port Alberni, Chances Rim Rock offers a unique west coast gaming experience. Two year old cedars are ready to welcome you inside, where you will find slot machines, virtual blackjack, bingo hall and the Cypress Restaurant. This community-centric one-ofa-kind casino is not to be missed. Selection of sides and sauces. Chicken Strips for the non-fish eaters. Iconic Port Alberni breakfast at the Harbour Quay. Watch your delicious home-style breakfast being made on the grill right in front of the counter.

Popular with fishermen, families and everyone who loves a homestyle breakfast. Gluten free and vegan options. Drive thru for Mags. Open 7 days a week. Gluten free menu available. Serves Breakfast, Lunch and Dinner. Unique items such as kangaroo burgers and restaurant menu done in Aussie style. Recently renovated to be larger to accommodate the every growing popularity of this eatery. Breakfast can be purchased all day.

A magical place to enjoy some of the best Candy and Chocolate found anywhere. Wonderful food and lots to do on site. Delivery and Take out only. Delivery starts at 11am daily. Fresh cut meats made to order. High quality products.

Perfect stop for preparations for the family BBQ, Camping or whatever. Great patio wonderful food and a most enjoyable golf course too! Coffee Shop catering to families with a great little play center for the kids. Delicious baked goods and tasty coffee as well.

The restaurant also offers up a full menu of Classic Canadian fare. A classic in Port Alberni located in a friendly and cozy environment that serves an array of delicious German inspired foods. People have been known to reserve their evening at Little Bavaria and then book their vacation around the reservations!

A lovely coffee shop with lunch options as well. Full service bakery including pies, cakes, donuts, cookies and treats of all kinds. A must visit! Specializing in Greek cuisine with souvlaki, moussaka, spanakopita and more created in house.

An intimate and cozy setting. Fully licensed. A great place to watch the game or simply enjoy time with friends and family. Great food, delicious cocktails and a great assortment of specialty drinks.

A wide range of dishes to satisfy any pallet. Fresh, seasonal ingredients sourced locally. Farm fresh veggies, local meats and seafood in season.

Vegan and gluten free options available. Dog friendly. Gluten free and vegan friendly options. Open daily am — 7pm. Licensed happy Hour Daily pm. Dine in or take it to go. Enjoy a variety of foods in our deli section including fresh daily sushi, Chinese food, pizza, chicken, soup, salad and daily specials.

Upstairs, A Step Above invites you upstairs to take a break from shopping. With Starbucks Coffee and sumptuous baked treats.

Cafeteria style offering with fresh sushi created in house, wings bar, sandwiches made to order, soup, salads, chicken and sides. The best way to describe Sehmi is with what their customers say. Best on the Island and great prices as well! Particularly popular among families with small children, seniors and travellers. Meeting room. Smoothology is the solution when you need food on the go. Classic smoothies come in biodegradable packaging and organic popcorn is lightly salted and perfectly snackable.

Locally owned and operated. Dough made fresh every morning and sauces are all prepared in house. Also offering burger, hotdogs, wings, pastas, fried chicken plus much more. Soya cheese and gluten free pizzas available. Check out the website. Fresh delicious foods in a renovated pub near the Harbour Quay.

Karaoki anyone? Huge screen on site to watch the game. Great food. Great service and views. The perfect place to enjoy food and drink on the water. A long time staple in Port Alberni with wonderful food excellent reliable service and a super environment for any demographic.

Salmon is just one item to savour at our award-winning Drinkwaters Restaurant, whether in the Lakefront Dining Lounge, the Stirling Room, or out on our warm-weather favourite the beaver dam deck patio. Located in the Best Western Plus Barclay Hotel this restaurant is perfect for whatever meal you might be looking for.

Great service, excellent food. Enjoy a fresh, West Coast style meal with a view from every table. Located in the heart of the Harbour Quay, The Starboard Grill is the place to relax among friends and family with amazing food, service and breathtaking views. Breakfast, muffins, soup, sandwiches all made in house and served with great coffee in a steam punk atmosphere.

Comfy reading room indooors or enjoy the sidewalk patio in heart of uptown. Subway is a most reliable and efficient restaurant catering to those who want good food with custom order options.

Open daily 7 am, 7 days a week for breakfast and lunch. Authentic real food experience! Moroccan and French Cuisine all on a ft tugboat. Local, Fresh, Organic. By reservation only. Delicious beers paired with wonderful pizzas.

Hotsauna, tub, sauna, seasonal amenities. Hot tub, heatedheated outdooroutdoor seasonal pool, fitness conference facilities, pool, fitness centre,centre, conference facilities, premierpremier catering services, and courteous hour staff.

Huge selection. Find Huge Find your your favourite favourite or new one. All come with tea and coffeemaking equipment and iPod docks. Upgraded rooms include separate seating areas, pull-out sofas, microwaves and minifridges. A long standing business in Port Alberni formerly known as the Arlington Hotel. Family run with several features including Pub, Lounge, Restaurant, and specialty food services too. Continental buffet breakfast. Enjoy the full service bar and choose to relax outside on the patio or inside in a wonderful setting.

Lots of music options await you. A lovely new 1 bedroom Indigenous themed guesthouse situated on Highway 4 en route to the West Coast. Country charm at its finest with opportunities for swimming, tubing, freshwater fishing, sauna and wifi. One suite has a jacuzzi tub and access to the sundeck. Ask about the 2 day feature including the Frances Barkley. TV, phones. Wedding packages, senior discounts. Pets welcome. COM Large group discounts. Room service, coin laundry, free wireless internet.

Some pet friendly rooms available. Kitchen units. Barbecue area. Lakeside rooms each have a balcony overlooking scenic Sproat Lake. Owned and operated by Joop and Margriet who are from the Netherlands. The Star House is a peaceful, beautiful place for a couple or single person.

It is a retreat like private accommodation. You will enjoy the beauty of the pond off the patio, with willow trees, songbirds and wildlife. Laundry facilities are available. All these questions and many more are broached in this book. Like many books, this one came to be written as the result of an accident. This seems to reflect the view that the vocabulary used by the upper classes was clearly superior to that used by the lower classes, a view that was, of course, held and propagated by the upper classes.

Whether or not this is an appropriate inference from the text above, it is historically false. Because Kate Burridge had worked with, among other things, the language of Middle Dutch medical texts, we got together to compare euphemism in present-day English and in Middle Dutch. The more deeply we delved into euphemism, the greater the project grew. We found it necessary to distinguish euphemisms from dysphemisms, then to sort them into types, next to tease out the effects of style and jargon, and so forth.

Before long, what began as a short paper, expanded into the present book. In the course of our investigations we discovered that, when it comes to largely oral traditions such as slang and obscenity, different dialect groups will frequently have different interpretations for a common form – which suggests that the common written language has a levelling effect on English dialects.

One of the most striking effects of our journey into oral culture was to be sharply reminded of the delightful inventiveness of so much of its terminology; the overwhelming majority of language examples discussed in linguistic textbooks are sterile fragments of the rich language they supposedly identify. We have found, on the contrary, that metaphor is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language but in thought and action. Our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphorical in nature.

We had a lot of fun gathering material for the book; and a lot of help getting it together. They are, of course, all blameless for the remaining flaws. Keith Allan is very grateful to the Department of Linguistics at the University of Arizona for generous access to facilities during the time he spent there.

Perhaps we should add our thanks for the use of the facilities provided by our regular employers, Monash University and La Trobe University, respectively. Finally, we pay tribute to Don Laycock who was especially generous in lending us his collection of Maledictas and one or two other texts; we were anticipating his advice on our final draft, but unfortunately he died long before it was finished. We think that Don might have enjoyed this book, even though he would not have agreed with everything in it.

Thanks Don, wherever you are. We offer Euphemism and Dysphemism to our readers with the wish that they will concomitantly enjoy the book and benefit, as we have done, from the study of its subject matter.

An interesting perspective on the human psyche is to be gained from the study of euphemisms used as a shield against the disapprobation of our fellows or at worst death, and from the examination of dysphemisms used as a weapon against those we dislike or as a release valve against the vicissitudes of malign fate.

Many euphemisms and dysphemisms demonstrate the poetic inventiveness of ordinary people: they reveal a folk culture that has been paid too little attention by lexicographers, linguists, and literaticians – and, indeed, by the very folk who use them: you, me, our friends and relatives. HEROFie upon thee, art not ashamed?

Of speaking honourably? Is not marriage honourable in a beggar? Is not your lord honourable without marriage? Ask my Lady Beatrice else; here she comes. HEROWhy, how now? Do you speak in the sick tune? I scorn that with my heels. By my troth, I am exceeding ill – heigh-ho! Doth not my wit become me rarely? By my troth, I am sick. You have some moral in this benedictus. But be assured, dear reader, that you will not need help with the rest of this book. And, as you turn to it, we entreat you to enjoy the products of the human mind as it confronts the problem of how to talk in different contexts about body parts, bodily functions, sex, lust, disapproval, anger, hate, disease, death, fear and God.

Ignoring knowledge is sickness. Lao Tsu Tao Te Ching 71 This book is a study of language and language use; and in the course of writing it, we, as professional linguists, made certain assumptions which may be neither familiar to nor shared by all our readers. In this chapter we will try to identify and clarify these assumptions, most of which are straightforward; but a few require fairly detailed explanation.

We are confident that most readers will not regret the time taken to become familiar with our terminology before hurrying on to more exciting parts of the book.

In ordinary usage, utterances occur only in spoken language, but here we understand them to include segments of either speech or writing. They can be complete sentences or, in the case of speech, they are frequently just fragments of sentences. An utterance is brought into being by an act of speaking or writing, by what is more succinctly called a speech act – a term applied even to the act of producing a written utterance!

Usually, a speaker or writer makes a number of utterances to an audience that are linked by some sort of arrangement of related topics. There are many varieties of texts. Some involve the utterances of a single individual: for example, lectures, speeches, sermons, recitations, narratives and jokes. Others, like arguments, negotiations, interviews, conversations, debates etc.

Even in casual conversations not everyone can talk at once; and there are certain sequencing conventions and cues which govern when and how the interlocutors take turns at speaking. Hearers become speakers, while speakers in turn become hearers, and so forth.

There are also ritual utterances, like those used in greetings and partings, or to show that one is paying attention to the speaker holding the turn, etc. Anyone who does not observe these sorts of conventions is considered uncooperative and even rude. We are confident that our readers will take this idiosyncrasy in their stride and still be able to enjoy the book.

We shall also assume that there is only the one Speaker at a time – which is in any case the norm. Hearer is normally individually identifiable to Speaker when the latter is speaking, and when writing a personal letter, but rarely in other varieties of written discourse.

Even though there is commonly more than the one Hearer at a time, we will assume in our discussion that there is only one. We have a little more troublesome terminology to explain at this point.

In making an utterance, Speaker uses a form of words, the locution, to convey a certain message, the illocution. These terms were originally introduced by J. Austin in see Austin , and have undergone some slight variation in meaning since then, cf. The same locution can be used to convey different messages, depending on the context of use. Conversely, the same illocution can be achieved using different locutions: for instance there are all sorts of locutions to convey that Speaker wants to be informed of the time, e.

Got the time? In the course of this book we will frequently be referring to locutions and illocutions, and the difference between them should be borne in mind. In this section we have described what we mean by Speaker, Hearer, utterance, speech act, reflexive-intention, locution and illocution.

In making an utterance, Speaker will select particular forms in response to the degree of formality, informality and familiarity appropriate to the context of the utterance. Joos identified five levels of formality: frozen, formal, consultative, casual and intimate. Style varies according to who we are and whom we are communicating with; whether we are speaking or writing; where we are and when the utterance takes place; what we are talking about; and how we feel about the whole situation.

If any one of these factors is changed, the style may well change accordingly. For any given utterance, there exists a wide variety of stylistic choices possible: not only lexical choices, although these are the most obvious, but also grammar, pronunciation, and paralinguistic features like gesture and facial expression.

Thus, euphemism and dysphemism which are themselves defined in ch. The word context can be interpreted in three ways, giving rise to three categories of context; and all three contribute significantly to the production and interpretation of utterances. Utterances link up with their co-text by including devices to mark topic continuity: e. Carter ch. Utterances not only take from their co-text, they also give to it: what we say or write at any point is probably going to have an important bearing how a text will continue.

Setting determines the choice of what are collectively known as deictic expressions: tense, personal pronouns identifying Speaker and Hearer, among others ; demonstratives this, that, yonder, etc. The setting will also have a role to play in determining the topic and the linguistic register or jargon – that is, the variety of language associated with a particular occupational, institutional, or recreational group: e.

The setting is also where and when paralanguage takes place, e. The most important category of context is the world spoken of and that includes the world written of. The world spoken of is the mental model of the world which we all construct in order to be able to produce or understand a text. The world we construct can be our own version of the real world or perhaps a deliberately evoked fictional world – as in a futuristic novel, for example.

A text is judged coherent where this world is internally consistent and generally accords with accepted human knowledge; even an imaginary world is necessarily interpreted in terms of the world of our experience.

This is the most crucial category of context, because the two other categories are mostly only relevant by reference to it. The co- text identifies entities, events, etc. Context is not only crucial in determining the meaning of an utterance; it is also critical in deciding what constitutes politeness.

We will show that an expression will be understood as being either euphemistic inoffensive or dysphemistic offensive depending on the context any one or more of the three categories in which it is embedded. There are many different kinds of meaning, and distinguishing between them is tough, though not intolerable, for even the most perspicacious reader.

It would probably be helpful then if we identify those kinds of meaning which are of particular concern for this book. For us, sense and denotation are distinct types of meaning; reference is a kind of denotation. Finally, we define connotation, a term which we shall be using quite frequently, but whose meaning is much less controversial.

Nonetheless, suppose we look up the meaning of canine; what we would find given in the dictionary are the senses of the word: 1 canine It should be noted that they are translation equivalents independently of any particular context of use: the significant characteristic of sense that distinguishes it from the other kinds of meaning we shall shortly be discussing, is that it is decontextualized meaning, abstracted from innumerable occurrences of the word in texts looking back at the dictionary entries for canine, quoted above, you have to decide which of the four senses given is relevant to a particular context in which the word is used.

As Oscar Wilde reminded us in The Importance of Being Earnest Act I , the truth is never simple; and although denotations use the senses of expressions, the senses of expressions are gradually influenced by the denotata with which they come to be associated!

Denotation is the meaning relation that holds between language expressions and the world spoken of. The world spoken of may be fictional i. The various types of non- referring expressions are identified in the following examples by upper case. A Those denying the existence of the denotatum: GOD does not exist. Many authors, e. Bach , Lyons ch. We find these practices unsatisfactory when trying to account for nonreferring terms. Although this is not in itself of any import to the present book, it is in other work we have been involved with; and rather than be inconsistent with our terminology in different works, or to be false to our beliefs when writing this one, we have used the terminology we believe to be the most appropriate to the discussion of meaning in language.

Summing up so far: if we were asked the meaning i. Its denotation, however, will depend on the occasion Speaker utters it. Social and expressive information of this kind that attaches to meaning is connotation. The connotations of a word or longer expression arise from our experiences, beliefs, and prejudices about the contexts in the expression is used.

Consequently, the connotations of an expression vary independently of its senses and denotations; they also vary between speech communities. Sets of words can have the same sense, but at the same time differ considerably in connotation. For example, each of the nouns dog, mutt, hound, cur, dish-licker, bow-wow, whelp, and mongrel typically denote a canine animal of either sex; but the lexemes have quite different connotations. Mutt, cur and whelp are pejorative – and therefore dysphemistic.

Dish-licker smacks of dog racing slang, and bow-wow either racing slang or baby-talk cp. Dog, however, connotes nothing in particular, being the unmarked lexeme among the others. Think of the different connotations that attach to the terms girl, woman, lady, chick, broad, madam, tart, bird, sheila all of which could potentially be used of the same person say, in her late twenties, and if she were to travel between U. Connotation makes it extremely difficult to find cases of absolute identity of meaning between vocabulary items.

It is rare to find words which are identical in all the associations they have taken on from the various contexts in which they are used.

Why are these matters relevant to the subject matter of this book? Well, it is the case that, on the one hand, some vocabulary items will need to be classified within a dictionary as typically euphemistic, e. Such classifications are a function of both the senses and connotations of the lexemes. Words are powerful things, and the reticence and fear that some taboo terms arouse in us can be strong. The word cancer, for example, has come to be equated with malignancy, corruption, and death; so it is generally shunned.

People generally prefer to talk about growths and tumours, both of which CAN be benign, whereas they believe cancer cannot. If this seems to imply that euphemism and dysphemism are matters of purely lexical choice, that is not in fact the case. We shall show, in the course of this book, that euphemism and dysphemism are principally determined by the choice of expression within a given context: both world spoken of, and the world spoken in.

We cannot properly judge something as euphemistic or dysphemistic without this information – which is why dictionaries of euphemisms are never entirely successful. The proof of this should become evident in various of the chapters that follow.

There are, for instance, conventions governing how close to one another interlocutors should stand; how to begin and end phone conversations; how to show interest in what Speaker is saying; how to make requests politely or sharply; how to offer thanks; etc. Grice recognizes four different kinds of cooperation governing the most typical forms of social behaviour.

He formulates these as maxims prescribing the norms of behaviour which participants are expected to observe during a linguistic exchange, although they may on occasion choose not to do so. The versions given here are neo-Gricean updates on the originals. We do not normally say things like My neighbour, who is a woman, is pregnant, because it contains an unnecessary relative clause; we know that if the neighbour is pregnant, it MUST be a woman. We, the authors, would be violating the maxim of quality if we were to say We believe this book is suitable bedtime reading for six year olds.

Thus, for example, one should ordinarily avoid saying things like There is a male adult human being in upright stance using his legs as a means of locomotion to propel himself up a series of flat-topped structures some fifteen centimeters high rather than This allows the hearer to seek the communicative purpose behind apparent violations of the maxims; e. Were there no cooperative principle, systematic communication would be impossible.

There would be no ground rules for deciding whether or not an utterance makes sense, nor what value should be put on it. Conversely, speakers would have no ground rules for getting their message across to the audience. The principle of cooperative behaviour is motivated by conventions pertaining to face effects cf. Face is going to be a very important concept for this book, and it behooves us to say something about it here. Strong feelings attach to face wants. On the other hand, if the outcome is a public self-image which surpasses the norm, i.

But if the outcome is merely a self-image consistent with the usual, if face has been simply maintained, then the person is unlikely to feel any strong emotions one way or another.

Every time we open our mouths, we have to consider whether what we say is likely to maintain, enhance, or damage our own face, as well as considering the effect of our utterance on others. Just as we look after our own face self-respect , we are expected to be considerate of and look after the face- wants of others, turning a tactful blind eye, perhaps, or telling a white lie.

How often have some of us bought a product simply to save the face of the salesperson – with a sneaking suspicion that the sales-pitch was engineered for precisely this outcome! Depending on our own social attributes and on the situation itself, we will have to adjust the line we take during an exchange and adopt different face-saving strategies accordingly; that is, we will have to choose our language expressions, tone and quality of speaking, looks and gestures to produce just the desired face effects.

Those who are skilled in face-work are described as having social savoir faire; they are said to be perceptive, and diplomatic. But of course not everyone is going to be the same. Different groups play by different rules, and conventions will vary considerably between individuals even within the same community. Cultures can have very different norms too, and consequently quite different repertoires of face-work strategies.

Non-native speakers are often unaware of these differences and because of this may on occasion cause offense. There are two co-existing aspects to face generally recognised, cf. This is called positive face. The other aspect to face is the want of a person not to be imposed upon. It is a difficult game to play, requiring just the right amount of attention and perceptiveness. We do not want to be accused of being thick-skinned because we pay too little attention to our own face; but neither do we want to be seen as thin-skinned because we pay too much attention to it.

As we remarked earlier, the default situation for non-hostile social interaction is a mutual expectation that the participants will try to avoid any potential face affront to the others. All societies have strategies for avoiding encounters that are potentially face-threatening, for example by using go-betweens or intermediaries.

Avoidance relationships in the kinship systems of certain Australian Aboriginal societies, for example, lead to social manoeuvres of a spectacular kind, cf. Frazer , Dixon A critical comment can be ameliorated with some sort of hedging phrase to soften the potential face affront to the hearer.

In response to an invitation, an expression of regretted inability is generally preferable to downright refusal. Compare some of the possible responses to the offer Do you want to come out for a meal tonight? Refusals and denials of any sort are potentially hazardous to face and either of the first two responses can be used to hurt or offend the offerer; although 2 is slightly better than 1.

The third response, expressing inability is more polite and therefore more considerate of face. It saves the situation by indicating that the relationship is still where it was. Generally speaking, the greater the on-coming face-affront, the more excessive is the politeness shown. The notion of face is useful in distinguishing between types of Hearers and overhearers. We define Hearer as anyone whom, at the time of utterance, Speaker reflexively-intends should recognize the illocutionary point of the utterance i.

Goffman Any other person hearing the utterance is an overhearer, i. A bystander within earshot was not originally intended as a Hearer and may, depending on the circumstances, accept or reject the role of Hearer without loss of face. The cooperative principle and matters of face are relevant to the subject matter of this book because it is principally about euphemism and dysphemism, and we shall define both of them in terms of face affects. It is therefore important not only to know what face affects are, but also how they relate to other politeness phenomena and conventions for language behaviour.

Face affronts are typically dysphemistic, and therefore potential face affronts are sometimes avoided, or at least ameliorated, by the use of euphemisms. In the production of social harmony, euphemism and dysphemism are key performers. Euphemism is characterized by avoidance language and evasive expression; that is, Speaker uses words as a protective shield against the anger or disapproval of other natural or supernatural beings.

Dysphemism is, roughly speaking, the contrary of euphemism. Investigating dysphemism, we examine the verbal resources for being offensive, being abusive, and just letting off steam. And we also set forth a classification of euphemisms and dysphemisms according to their formal and functional characteristics. For instance we include examples like the following. The list is extremely heterogeneous and seemingly endless; but in the chapters that follow we attempt to impose order on apparent chaos.

When we seek to explain the sources for some of the metaphors and figures which have been created for euphemistic or dysphemistic purposes, we step into lexicology. But we emphasize that our book is NOT and was never intended to be a dictionary of euphemism and dysphemism; there are already many such volumes in existence: e. Our aim is not to outdo or even replicate these treasure troves of euphemism and dysphemism, so you, the reader, will probably be able to think up many more examples of euphemistic and dysphemistic usage than we shall write about.

As we have said, we offer an analysis of the motivations behind these different kinds of language use, a classification of them, an occasional history, and a functional account of the various expressions of euphemism and dysphemism. By and large, euphemism and dysphemism are obverse sides of the same coin. In developing our account of them, we needed to show how it is that they particularly euphemism have come to be so consistently and so ubiquitously maintained in human society.

On the face of it, euphemism is not such a big deal in English as in, say, Austronesian societies in which violations of taboo are expected to have dire consequences. It seems to us that the real difference is in societal attitudes to violations of the prevailing social norms. The comparatively mild censure with which present day North American and European societies treat blasphemy, political dissent, and even crimes against property and persons, are comparatively recent innovations: such transgressions have been, and in some cases still are, amongst other things, violations of taboos.

One does not need to look far back in history to find dire consequences for people foolish enough to be heard or observed violating them. Looked at this way, the social constraints on the observation of verbal taboos in places like Austronesia seem less exotic; in any case, many of the old taboos there are disappearing under the influence of that hegemonous alien culture spreading down from the northern hemisphere.

Sure, there are cultural differences with respect to the use of euphemism and dysphemism, but they are differences in degree rather than differences in kind. Attitudes to bodily effluviae, body parts, to notions of social status and the like, to death, disease, to dangerous animals, and to the supernatural, vary tremendously between cultures; but essentially these same parameters recur in every culture and subculture to motivate euphemism and dysphemism. The point of view we have just described was determined after careful investigation of euphemism in a wide variety of languages, and that is why we shall occasionally mention languages other than present day English.

In particular, of course, we compare euphemisms in English and Middle Dutch – that is, Dutch spoken during the Middle Ages. Why Middle Dutch? Well, if we had confined ourselves to early examples of English we would have been restricted to secondary sources like the O. To have to rely solely on secondary sources is a real drawback for a study such as this because of the lack of contextual details they provide.

On the other hand, we do have at our disposal original Dutch texts, on which one of the authors KB has already worked extensively. So, we opted for a special consideration of Middle Dutch. Something which is not generally appreciated about Dutch is its very long written tradition, providing us with a repertoire of early texts as impressive as any to be found in a Germanic language; and there is the added advantage that many of these texts are in non-literary genres.

This is an important consideration for our study on two counts. Firstly, we want something which gives an accurate picture of ordinary spoken language.

The lack of stylization and literary ambition in these texts means that, as far as we can tell, they reflect the vernacular language of their day cf. Secondly, the non-literary texts we chose deal particularly with sickness, death, sex, and bodily functions – i.

So, in style and thematic material, these Middle Dutch medical texts were ideally suited to provide the kind of historical perspective we sought for our study. Moreover, they gave us an appreciation of the middle ages which could never have been gained from consulting secondary sources. Middle Dutch might look a bit strange, but readers should not find it much more obscure than Middle English – in fact the two languages are tantalizingly similar.

As a result of the Norman conquest in , Middle English is significantly different from that of Old English. The effect was to create lots of doublets in the language; the one deriving from French or Latin would have more prestige, and was likely to be the euphemism; while the corresponding Germanic form, deriving from Old English, was more likely to be dysphemistic. The situation was in reality far more complex than this suggests, but the overlay of Romance on Germanic which makes English such a mongrel language adds an unwelcome variable that is not present in Dutch.

Although French was a prestige language for Dutch speakers also, it did not exert nearly the same influence on the Dutch language as it did on English at this time, particularly in the area of vocabulary, and for the most part Middle Dutch maintains its Germanic character from Old Dutch. Much of the material we discuss comes from oral tradition in English and other languages; but we also draw heavily from written records for euphemisms, dysphemisms, and information about socio-cultural arrangements and attitudes.

Of course, it is true that written records are not the ideal source for those kinds of euphemism and dysphemism which blossom in the spoken language. And, of course, documents such as the medieval Dutch medical treatises which we report on, provide the only evidence available of the kinds of expressions used in a medieval speech community. Unless we can persuade Dr Who or someone else with a time machine to take us back through history to investigate the spoken language of our forebears, their written records are all we have.

Stricter conventions are observed in writing than in speech, because the domain of writing is usually public rather than private; but the readership expected for a medieval text was very much smaller than we would expect for a book today. The fact remains, however, that whatever drives these verbal behaviours is the same whether they are manifest in conversation, comic verse, formal courtly poetry, drama, or instructive texts such as the ones we examine here from medieval Holland.

And we are concerned in this book not only with the formal expression of euphemism and dysphemism, but also with the traditions of etiquette, the aspects of social organization and culture, and the contexts which impel these verbal behaviours.

Chapter 2 defines euphemism, dysphemism, dysphemistic euphemism and euphemistic dysphemism; and offers classifications for them. Chapter 3 looks at euphemism in naming and addressing people. Chapter 4 examines the taboos on bodily effluviae, especially the menstruation taboo, and tabooed body-parts; it seeks to explain why there are stronger taboos on the bodies and effluviae of women than those of men. Chapter 5 surveys the huge lexicon of tabooed effluviae, sexual activity, and all the associated body-parts.

Chapter 6 examines the language of abuse in every field from profanity to obscenity to racism and the like. Chapter 7 studies the language of death: every society seems to euphemize at least some aspects of death. We look, too, at the deceptive language used by killers, both criminal and military. Chapter 8 takes a step back from death to tackle verbal expressions for the sick and their diseases.

In Chapter 9 we examine jargon sometimes called register : we show that jargon has euphemistic functions for in-groupers, but is too often dysphemistic towards out-groupers.

Finally, in Chapter 11, we draw together the loose ends from earlier chapters and offer our concluding thoughts on euphemism and dysphemism. We believe the contents of this book you are about to embark upon, indeed that you have already embarked upon, contributes to both empirical investigation and theory.

It is intended to reach a wide audience, ranging through specialists such as linguists, anthropologists, sociologists, psychologists, therapists, and nonspecialist readers, all of whom are, like us, fascinated by the rich material that we shall uncover beneath the shield and the weapon.

To these we now add some additional terms and conventions that may themselves be unfamiliar or they may be used in a way that is unfamiliar. The glossary contains not only terms of art, but also some Australianisms and Britishisms which have puzzled some American readers. Only relevant senses are included in the alphabetical listing below. First though some nonalphabetic conventions.

Either 1 X is a reconstructed form from some extinct or even hypothetical language such as e. By contrast, abbreviations do not form proper words, and so they are pronounced as strings of letters, cf. Dutch broeder, Swedish brodor, German Bruder, English brother are cognates.

The Latin original of this noun denoted a variety of flows, oozings, leaks, emanations, escapes, etc. If we have, out of necessity, extended the denotational scope of the term at all, we are delighted. A morpheme is typically a part of a word, nonetheless many words consist of a single morpheme. It is the function of a morpheme to bear meaning, and so it must not be confused with a syllable, which is a phonological entity: a syllable conveys no meaning unless it happens to realize a morpheme.

Another example is unkindness, which can be decomposed into morphemes un-, kind, and -ness. Phonemic transcriptions are conventionally written between slashes. Double symbols are used only to indicate relative length.

Since many phonemic symbols used in this book have easily recognizable values, we restrict ourselves to exemplifying only the others. A full inventory can be found in any good introductory book on linguistics intended for English readers.

Some dictionaries also use them, e. In this book we have simplified the system to a minimum, which is why we yoke together British and Australian in the list below rather than dwell on irrelevant differences in pronunciation. The blade of the tongue is curled up so that the back of it closes the mouth at the teeth ridge.

Phonesthemes are typically incomplete syllables, and their meaning is much more difficult to pin down than that of morphemes; furthermore, exactly the same cluster of sounds that constitute the phonestheme will appear in many vocabulary items which have no trace of the meaning associated with the phonestheme!

This is its normal meaning in all dialects of English. Here, Meigs is clearly referring to what a boy might catch sight of, which is, if one needed to be absolutely specific, the vulva.

It is precious to claim, as do Ash and Hankey , that people like Meigs and ourselves MISUSE vagina to denote among other bits of the body the vulva; vulva is a specialist term, a piece of jargon, to be used when it is communicatively required to distinguish this denotatum from the rest of the female genitalia. Specialist terms, or jargon, are not appropriate to every context – as we shall clearly demonstrate in ch. Hopefully, the explanation of our terminology and the conventions we shall be using in some cases have already used earlier in the chapter will facilitate understanding of the text that is to follow.

The last thing we want is to make you whinge at our incompetent authorship. Adams Q: How is a wombat like a man? A: It eats , roots, shoots, and leaves.

James R. Frazer What Frazer says here is applicable to many of the euphemisms we shall be discussing in this book, but to encompass the enormously wide range of expressions that have been called euphemisms we need to define them as follows: A euphemism is used as an alternative to a dispreferred expression, in order to avoid possible loss of face see ch.

In its original conception the word taboo was borrowed from Tongan, an Austronesian language taboo is prohibited behaviour. It was prohibited because it was believed to be dangerous to certain individuals, or to society as a whole. In Austronesian languages, such tabooistic distortions wreak havoc with the comparative phonology of once cognate terms in related languages to cause a great deal of confusion among comparative linguists; cf. Simons for exemplification.

In fact, many euphemisms are alternatives for expressions Speaker would simply prefer not to use in executing a particular communicative intention on a given occasion or set of occasions. For example, Time magazine had the following to say about the U. Bribes and graft are hardly taboo terms, even among politicians. Or take the example of a widow who prefers to say she has paying guests rather than lodgers: it is stretching credulity to claim that lodger is taboo term, even for this lady; it is rather the case that, to her mind, paying guest has more positive connotations – or alternatively, fewer negative connotations – than does lodger; similarly, the terms honorarium, campaign contributions, etc.

Social taboos in most English speaking communities stretch from those on bodily effluviae, reproductive processes and the associated body-parts, which are in some form or other universal, to such matters of taste as not talking about personal income, which are rarer.

In Hong Kong, Singapore, or the Philippines it is as polite to ask a new acquaintance What is your salary? There are euphemisms without real taboo counterparts, ones that upgrade an alternative nomenclature.

Some of these euphemisms are motivated by pretentiousness, and are perhaps identifiable as jargon, see ch. Others are vaguely deceptive, e. A related kind of euphemism is illustrated in the following true story.

A man we know was once the offended party in a minor traffic accident in the back blocks of a third world country. It was suggested by the two police constables who turned up to check his vehicle that they could help him out by saving him the trouble of going to court. He expressed his gratitude for such help, and in return offered to take them out for a drink. The moral is that when a helpful policeman drinks, there is no need to mention bribery.

There is a whole batch of euphemisms for avoiding the mildly distasteful. There are dozens of comparable examples in many fields of discourse; e. The Mature Media Group is an Australian consortium of porn-movie makers.

A prostitute may well work in a massage parlour and so describe herself as a masseuse; and the working-girl who used to be known as a street-walker is someone who will show you a good time. To sum up: euphemisms are alternatives to dispreferred expressions, and are used in order to avoid possible loss of face.

Euphemism can be achieved through antithetical means, e. Many learned terms and some technical jargon is either borrowed from another language or constructed from one: for English, they are mostly derived from Latin or Ancient Greek. Most languages seem to have some euphemisms based on borrowed words or morphs. Consider some examples of these many types of euphemism. I took her for some Lillian Gish Down at the chippy caff. We squeezed into my jam-jar And drove back to my gaff.

Grose It is questionable whether kick the bucket or get your finger out can usefully be called euphemism rather than simply slang, which they undoubtedly are also. In ch. In the southwestern U.

Kirshenblatt-Gimblett , Simons Instead of effecting one-for-one substitution on the pattern described above, there are regular morphophonological changes such as metathesis or affixation to every word in the secret language. She led me to the tea table and the starlings went on with their chatter about my mother in eggy-peggy, a language I happened to know quite well. Mitford Italics added. The first is also figurative; the other two use the puffed up jargon of bureaucratese or a pastiche of it instead of a common term see ch.

In when the Australian dollar was taking a tumble, dealers and economists talked of it having a substantial downside risk potential. A recent Australian Broadcasting Commission program on education kept referring to those on the lower end of the ability scale cf. Peterson The process involved here is a kind of componential analysis; the senses of taboo terms are unpacked and each of the meaning components are listed.

The resulting periphrasis functions as a euphemism: rape becomes criminal sexual assault or as the newspapers used to call it a serious offense against a woman. Using this method new euphemisms can easily be created: urine becomes excermentitious human kidney fluid; faeces becomes solid human waste matter; and pus is viscous matter of a wound.

Omissions take this kind of euphemism one step further. There are quasi-omissions which substitute some nonlexical expression for the dispreferred term; e. The spoken counterparts to dashes and asterisks are things like mhm, er-mm, etc. Also I need to go, from which is omitted to the lavatory. This particular example reminds us of the VagisilTM medication for feminine itching, which is discussed in the next section.

Both these illustrate meaning extensions, and are arguably figurative. There are a couple of very nice examples of general-for-specific euphemisms in a magazine advert for VagisilTM products. Vagisil Feminine Itching Medication is described as follows: This instantly-soothing medication relieves external feminine itching as easily as aspirin relieves a headache. Rather similar was is? And so on: the number of general-for-specific subclasses is probably boundless.

Some of these would traditionally have been called metonymies. But euphemisms of this kind, which would traditionally have been called synecdoches, seem comparatively rare, though dysphemisms are not.

Many general-for-specific euphemisms are also understatements, e. Excuse my French, Robyn. Lodge Nice Work The use of Latin homonyms provides Standard English with euphemisms for bodily effluviae, sex, and the associated acts and bodily organs.

The use of perspire instead of sweat, expectorate instead of spit, defecate and faeces instead of shit, copulate instead of fuck, anus instead of arsehole, genitals or genitalia instead of sex organs, vagina instead of cunt, labia instead of lips [of the vagina], and so forth, is accepted practice when using Standard English.

Until recently, translations of taboo terms from exotic languages, and descriptions of taboo acts, caused an author to suddenly switch from English to Latin. We understand that the sky once married the earth. Haec verba dicere volunt. Ut maritus supra feminam in coitione iacet, sic coelum supra terram.

Ubi lucet sol et cadit imber, terra calorem recipit et humorem: non aliter femina hominis semine fruitur. When the sun shines and the rain falls, the earth receives heat and water: in the same way a woman is fertilized by a man. Latin is not the only foreign language source for English euphemisms. According to our definition of euphemism, brassiere is not a euphemism because there is no alternative.

Indeed, the abbreviation bra is more like a euphemism than brassiere itself. On the other hand, the use of French is per se euphemistic, and there really is no native English term – other than such horrors as tit-covers, breastplates, over-shoulder boulder-holders, etc. Using words borrowed from other languages to function as euphemisms is characteristic of many languages. For instance, among Thais fluent in English, including doctors addressing well-educated patients, English words are used in preference to Thai euphemisms for penis, vagina, menstruation abbreviated to men – but probably not from menses and sperm.

It is interesting that other body parts and bodily effluviae are not generally rendered in English, just those connected with reproduction. When people are arguing with each other, during football matches and when men are drunk, they will speak to each other in Tok Pisin rather than their vernacular.

In this context, Tok Pisin is neutral and the words have no power to harm anyone. The antithetical strategy is to use colloquial rather than more formal terms, e. It may seem obvious that pass away is a euphemism whereas die is the dispreferred term, and so forth. But the truth is, as usual, not so straightforward.

How many of us would seriously say These flowers have passed away rather than These flowers have died? Compare the terms menstruation and period. There are occasions the former is the euphemism; others when the colloquial term is more appropriate; and yet other occasions when the learned and the colloquial terms are equally appropriate – where neither is a euphemism.

Normally, the choice between alternatives depends entirely on context. For instance, the choice between menstruation and period is a matter of style, and one expression will often be more acceptable than another within a given style. Note also that there is an adjective menstrual which has no felicitous counterpart derived from period.

These different characteristics are consistent with the greater formality of the term menstruation. Euphemism and style are not the same thing, they intersect and interact: the style used defines the set of euphemisms which are conventional within that style; the euphemisms used help to define and maintain a particular style.

For example circumlocution and metaphor characterize high style, both in polite society and in allegorical literature; learned terms are used in formal styles and professional jargons like medicalese, and remodelling in colloquial styles; see ch. Despite our claim that particular expressions are not necessarily euphemistic in all contexts, it would ignore reality to pretend that ordinary people do not speak as if some expressions are intrinsically euphemistic – for instance, loo is euphemistic whereas shithouse is not.

What seems to be meant by this is that, in order to be polite to a casual acquaintance of the opposite sex in a formal situation in a middle class environment, one would normally be expected to use the euphemism rather than its dispreferred counterpart s.

When we describe some expression as a euphemism, without reference to the context of its use, this is what we have in mind. These matters will be clarified in the pages to come. Si turpe est, ne alieno quidem; si non est, suo potius. If it is indecent, do not use even the substituted name; if not, you had better call it by its own.

Therefore, there is no a priori basis for distinction between the mentionable euphemism and the unmentionable taboo term. Taboo terms are contaminated by the taboo topics which they denote; but by definition the euphemisms are not – or not yet – contaminated.

In fact, a euphemism often degenerates into a taboo term through contamination by the taboo topic. It is conceivable that funeral director will one day be clipped to mere director which will then follow undertaker and become a taboo term. All this supports the view that taboo terms are classified as such because of a belief, be it ever so vague, that their form reflects the essential nature of the taboo topics they denote.

There has also been an effect on words containing cock: e. And although there were other factors at work too, the use of haystack in place of haycock, and the use of weather-vane as an alternative to weather-cock, were undoubtedly influenced by taboo avoidance.

There are two reasons why language abandons homonyms of taboo terms. One is the relative salience of taboo terms. MacWhinney et al. For example, there are some mostly older English speakers who, if they catch themselves using the adjective gay in its former sense will, with mild embarrassment, explicitly draw attention to this intended meaning.

Where there is little likelihood of being misunderstood, the homonyms of a taboo term are likely to persist in the language. Dissimilation, however, is not always a protection for the innocent language expression. For instance, regina makes some people feel uncomfortable because of its phonetic similarity to vagina.

It is quite usual for speakers to avoid expressions which are phonetically similar to taboo terms, cf. Fuk is used for the name of the main character in the award-winning Thai novel Kham Phi Phaksa The Judgement by Chart Kobjitti, and there was much speculation about how the name would be transliterated when the novel was translated into English. Cicero op. Such is the power of taboo. It is for that reason that Middle Dutch features very significantly in this book, even though we have been led beyond our original goal to a discussion of more theoretical matters.

The only evidence of original Old Low Franconian or so-called Old Dutch is one sentence, hastily scribbled in the margins of a Latin manuscript sometime during the 11th century.

What are we waiting for now? It is a curious assumption among certain writers today that euphemisms are of recent origin see for example Adler f. Their verbal patterns are preserved for us now in the neat lists and regular paradigms of the modern handbook and there they remain in an almost fossilized state. Such mumification can tell us little of the subtleties of social attitudes which might have once prevailed.

Modern society has its deodorizing sprays and perfumes, but we should not underestimate the scent balls, the sweet-smelling vapours and inhalations of the middle ages. And there is no reason to assume the situation to be any different in language. In fact, with filth, disease and death existing on a more extensive scale, the need to hide behind the sweet-smelling euphemism was perhaps once even greater.

Indeed, there is no evidence that euphemism is absent from the language of any post-Neolithic human community, cf. Frazer , Griffin , Burchfield Most of the texts consulted contain some descriptions based on original observations, but are largely compilations of ideas contained in early Latin works. These are not translations, however; they show a language quite independent of the Latin. These medical texts have two important advantages for a study of euphemisms. For one, they contain little, if any, literary artificiality, and reflect closely the spoken idiom of the time so far as we are in a position to tell, see Burridge forthcoming, ch.

Certain elevated prose styles, particularly of the late middle ages, make extended use of highly elaborate and artificial expressions which go beyond the euphemism of ordinary language; and poetry is complicated by the formalisms of metre and rhyme.

Not only are the medical texts free from literary ambition, but it is in precisely these types of texts that discussion of sickness, death, sex, bowel movements, menstruation, etc. When relying on early texts, it is sometimes difficult to know what was considered appropriate and what was not; consequently it is difficult to assess the degree of delicacy of some of the terms used.

It seems clear, however, that most of the things which cause us anxiety and embarrassment today, were also of concern then, and avoidance terminology was as much a part of their language as it is of ours. But, as will be shown in chs 4, 7, and 8, there are some interesting divergences from modern practices. What motivates the choice is in many ways similar to what motivates the choice between saying Abu Nidal is a freedom fighter or Abu Nidal is a terrorist.

A dysphemism, then, is used for precisely the opposite reason that a euphemism is used. We said above that a dysphemism is used for precisely the opposite reason that a euphemism is used, and we define it as follows: A dysphemism is an expression with connotations that are offensive either about the denotatum or to the audience, or both, and it is substituted for a neutral or euphemistic expression for just that reason.

They are therefore characteristic of political groups and cliques talking about their opponents; of feminists speaking about men; and also of larrikins and macho types speaking of women and effete behaviours.

Dysphemism employs most of the same strategies as euphemism, but there are two main differences. One is that part-for-whole synecdochic dysphemisms are far more frequent than general- for-specific ones, which is the converse of the situation with euphemisms: e. Hyperbole may be used to magnify the offense, and this is often achieved by diminishing or downgrading the person addressed or what is being spoken of: the consequence is, paradoxically, to usurp the function one would expect to be assigned to understatement, so that if there ever is understatement, it is just this dysphemistic hyperbole!

Other differences between the strategies for euphemism and those for dysphemism are predictable: circumlocution is most usually dysphemistic when it manifests an unwanted jargon see ch. Consider some examples. NATO has a deterrent euphemism against the Russian threat dysphemism. In the mids the U. Dysphemism is indicated by the term so-called: e.

It came to be considered dysphemistic because it associated sufferers uniquely with the gay community, thereby offending heterosexual patients such as haemophiliacs. The word grid also evokes negative images of the grills and gratings one associates with a prison cell.

Dysphemistic terms of insult found in personal disputes of a colloquial nature include: A Comparisons of people with animals conventionally ascribed certain behaviours, e. Some of these can be used euphemistically, of course. C Ascriptions of mental or physical inadequacy, such as idiot, fuckwit, airhead, nincompoop, fool, cretin, moron, maniac, etc. Like euphemism, dysphemism is not necessarily a property of the word itself, but of the way it is used.

It will become abundantly clear in ch. The degree of contamination perceived in the denotatum ranges on a scale which has fear, abhorrence, loathing and contempt at one end, and nothing worse than low social esteem at the other. Since the 18th century wench seems to have recovered somewhat, certainly if one compares its present day use with harlot, whore, scrubber, etc.

It is notable that present day English girl can be used in all the senses wench has had; it will depend on context which sense is operative. The present meaning of knave arose during the 13th century, and eventually cuckooed the non-dysphemistic sense. Throughout the ages countryfolk have been held in low esteem in most communities.

According the O. The pejoration in all these cases seems to have been extraordinarily rapid, a century at most, if we are to believe the O. But of course there are others who will deliberately use such words humorously, as a tease.

According to our definition, euphemisms and dysphemisms are deliberate. LIZA [nodding to the others] Goodbye, all. Not bloody likely. I am going in a taxi. Pickering gasps and sits down. Shaw Usually, the use of jargon to people not initiated to it is inadvertently dysphemistic – but it can be deliberately used to exclude Hearer, for reasons we discuss in ch. Because of their offensive nature, inadvertent dysphemisms will draw attention to themselves in a way that inadvertent euphemisms do not.

X-phemisms i. In other words, an X-phemism e. To be a little more technical, cross-varietal synonyms have the same denotation but differ in connotation see ch.

 

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Made thousands of years ago by ancestors of the Nuu-chah-nulth people, these remarkable carvings are etched into the rocks on the edge of the lake. Here you can see First Nations Jewelry, masks, sculptures, wood carvings and panels. First Nations A breathtaking sculpture by local artist, Connie Watts, stands at the site of the notorious former Alberni Residential School.

The Tseshaht First Nation politely asks that you visit their Administration Building to seek permission to visit the sculpture. An extensive collection of First Nations artifacts and information can be found at the Alberni Valley Museum. With its long hot summers and cool winters the Alberni Valley offers one of the best growing climates on Vancouver Island.

Blueberries are a summer staple here in Port Alberni, and what better way to enjoy these juicy berries than straight from the bush at Cox Lake Blueberry Farm. This peaceful acreage offers a u-pick experience where you can enjoy wandering through the rows of established bushes with a lakefront view.

Or, if you are short on time, Avalon Farm offers prepicked berries at their farm stand throughout the harvest season. Seasonal farm experiences are a specialty at Collins Farm.

U-pick opportunities are offered throughout the summer and the famous pumpkin patch complete with wagon rides is open on select weekends during fall. Grass fed beef is available at the farm year round. Collins Farm is also home to the eclectic Arrowvale Petting Farm; a unique chance to encounter chickens, bunnies, goat and donkeys in their custombuilt colourful animal barns. An abundance of fruits, veggies, ethically raised meats and locally laid eggs can be found throughout the Valley.

A full list of local farms and farm stands can be found online at the Alberni Valley Food Directory: www. Looking for a place to stay, eat or visit, Come see us at the Visitor Centre We have something for everyone in all areas of the region. We have an abundance of quality restaurants featuring foods from all corners of the globe. We are open everyday! Up in the air Take to the skies and discover Port Alberni from a new perspective.

With its rugged mountains, alpine lakes, farmland and beautiful canyons, the Alberni Valley will take your breath away. Their qualified pilots invite you to experience flight in its purest form. Take off from the water with Pacific Seaplanes. Their floatplane tours and charters can take you into the mountains or over the sea. Charter flights are also available to many Pacific Northwest destinations. Professional guides will take you on a breathtaking tour through beautiful river canyons and west coast forest trails.

Owned by the Coulson Group and now parked on the edge of the scenic Sproat Lake, this flying tanker can be seen throughout the summer months either by land, or from the water. WeFlyBC Here, you can enjoy panoramic ocean views from the top of the impressive clock tower, and marvel at the stunning salmon carving that sits in the centre of the Quay.

Plunge into this interactive aquarium and discover marine creatures living right here in the Alberni Inlet. A new tank featuring a turtle will be added to the aquarium this summer to help raise awareness about the impact of invasive species in our oceans.

With a large selection of sea bearing vessels, Port Boat House has your boating needs covered. Local produce, eggs and meat and locally made crafts can be found at the Saturday Spirit Square Farmers Market. Perched on the edge of the inlet, Starboard Grill is an excellent place to enjoy panoramic ocean views. Dinners are by reservation only, so be sure to book in advance. Proudly providing quality selection and exceptional service for over 26 years.

Visit us today! Many of our visitors are shocked to learn just how much there is to do here. From outdoor adventures to heritage experiences our little town has something for everyone. Award winning beer brewed right in the heart of Port Alberni! Twin City Brewing serves a seasonal selection of beers and ciders as well as delicious hand stretched pizzas and sandwiches made with in-house smoked meats and local produce.

This unique gift shop can be found at the junction of Mar and Second, a few blocks away from the Uptown shopping district. The distinctive blue exterior is hard to miss. Inside you will find a selection of pottery, glass, jewelry, paintings and locally made goods. The salmon run can be viewed from early summer into fall at Stamp Falls Provincial Park. Peer down into the Salmon Ladder and see the tens of thousands of fish that migrate the falls each year.

McLean Mill National Historic site is a rare steam-powered sawmill. Souvenirs can be found aplenty at the gift shop. For , the goal of Finishing Touches has been to provide you with the ultimate in total body relaxation through spa services provided by professionally trained staff of unmatched experience. Stop by to experience our wonderful selection of unique jewellery, gift items, bath products, cosmetics and skin care.

The best way to see the Alberni Valley — all at once! The five kilometer round trip takes you through beautiful rain forest to a breathtaking view of Port Alberni, the Alberni Inlet and Great Central Lake. Wear good shoes and bring water and snacks. Discover many delicious treats made by world renowned candy maker, Murray Lawlor. Locally tapped maple syrup is available at the Arrowvale Farm Store.

A short hike down a sloped gravel road takes you through beautiful second growth forest and onto the serene riverbank where you can sit back and enjoy the view. The indoor social playground of Port Alberni, Chances Rim Rock offers a unique west coast gaming experience. Two year old cedars are ready to welcome you inside, where you will find slot machines, virtual blackjack, bingo hall and the Cypress Restaurant. This community-centric one-ofa-kind casino is not to be missed.

Selection of sides and sauces. Chicken Strips for the non-fish eaters. Iconic Port Alberni breakfast at the Harbour Quay. Watch your delicious home-style breakfast being made on the grill right in front of the counter. Popular with fishermen, families and everyone who loves a homestyle breakfast. Gluten free and vegan options. Drive thru for Mags. Open 7 days a week. Gluten free menu available. Serves Breakfast, Lunch and Dinner.

Unique items such as kangaroo burgers and restaurant menu done in Aussie style. Recently renovated to be larger to accommodate the every growing popularity of this eatery. Breakfast can be purchased all day. A magical place to enjoy some of the best Candy and Chocolate found anywhere. Wonderful food and lots to do on site. Delivery and Take out only. Delivery starts at 11am daily.

Fresh cut meats made to order. High quality products. Perfect stop for preparations for the family BBQ, Camping or whatever. Great patio wonderful food and a most enjoyable golf course too! Coffee Shop catering to families with a great little play center for the kids. Delicious baked goods and tasty coffee as well.

The restaurant also offers up a full menu of Classic Canadian fare. A classic in Port Alberni located in a friendly and cozy environment that serves an array of delicious German inspired foods. People have been known to reserve their evening at Little Bavaria and then book their vacation around the reservations! A lovely coffee shop with lunch options as well. Full service bakery including pies, cakes, donuts, cookies and treats of all kinds.

A must visit! Specializing in Greek cuisine with souvlaki, moussaka, spanakopita and more created in house. An intimate and cozy setting. I hrooke. I Olon cnallage blower. In gond condition. DEN ticeiiurst, lAucUoiurn.

Property For Sale near Unlveralty, wall In wall ear. New apartment with healed swimming pool. Immediate nr-rupinev. Available B3I4. June 1st. Avail- II4, Situated on Belvedere St. Tel Itoval Trust, Frontenac, Orleans Apply giving age to Record Box No. Two in family, mother and daughter, own room, no heavy work Apply Record Box No.

Phone Cars For Sate A copy of the plans, specifications anil form of tender may be obtained on payment of a certified cheque, or money order. Musi sable, m applying, to Depart he reliable.

Ralph D. Domestic Help Dubuque, Grande Isle. Vermont R. Pontiac, Vauxhalt, G. Deluxe Automobile Ltd. Cookshire Robert Burns I1. Wanted Tu Purchase Female preferred. With registration papers Tel. Apply MAN desires work doing repairs or maintenance work. West, in basement Tel. Available immediately. Adults only Tel. By the week. Orleans Apartments. Ill Wellington St. S A. We have all types of household furnishings at attractive low prices. Because we accept trade-ins, you will find many used articles in our second floor department which are in good condition, and very reasonably priced.

Such Security Deposit shall Indemnify the Corporation against loss in the event of withdrawal of successful Tenderer subsequent to acceptance of the bid by the Corporation. PQ dor. Room E-5, Parliament Buildings. Eastern Daylight Saving Time June The Minister does not bind himself to accept the lowest, nor any of the tenders. Rene Monty Armand Rousseau, Q. Tobin, Q. Sherbrooka Tel. He didn’t grin for long. Eggs had advanced into the village. Battery: Weight lbs. The year-old boy who owned that might remember all his life that a soldier ruined his future.

The Viet Cong know how to treat people, and they behave very carefully. We rush through these villages in a hurry, fighting as we go. But we can stop stealing. East Tel. Bilingualism an asset. All Replies treated in strictest confidence. State age, salary required and all other essential details.

Montreal j Chartered Accountants Dufferin Ave. Toronto, j Saint John. Peler Macaskill ;’s liosts Those attending were Mis! A Wade. Min’ Baker. SIanbridge East : Miss K. E, Martin. Mr I rd ami Mr.

Bedford The meeting was opened with r ayer by the pastor. Miss Primmerni. Uler inspect m of the manse -cv end minor repairs were deemed neccssar. At lie conclusion of the meci ing refreshments wire served bv Ihe hostess and ill enjoyed a social hour. North Halley, were Mr. Mrs Marcel Denauit, Foster! St reel Mr and Mis Sheridan Dow. Mrs Pansy Dow. Tub-room on June l. The Milv meeting will he in Hie form of a picnic on he first Wednesday of the month if wealhci permits, m on the second Wednesday al ihe home of the president, Mrs.

Douglas Lee, near Hlghwaler. During the forenoon the lad-to. MacVcan of Saskatoon, Snsk. The Sherbrooke Daily Retord requires n correspondent tor Thetford Mines To report local activities and look after subscriptions and renewals. Applications should be marked: Attention Miss Fannie Williams. Many terry-lined. Sizes 14 to 17 Reg 3. Libby’s PORK without meat 8 oz. Whilcher were in Knowlton to attend the Golden Wedding of Mr. Mrs, Wm. Childs left on June 4 for England and Scotland for a three months vacation, where she will visit relatives and fri ends.

Mrs, Childs spent a levs days In Montreal with her sis 1er Mrs. Allen Whileher and Mr. Whilcher for a few days. Mr and Mrs. Durrell sser in Sherhroike to attend the Grand laxlge of Ihe 1. Mildred Wilson and Mrs. Irwin, Waterloo were guests of Mr. Mauriee Williams recently, Mrs. Brock, the former Melicent McElroy. Allen Whitchet and two children were recent quests of ‘1r. Jesse Allen here, prior to leav-‘mg for Prince Rupert, B. Stanley Woolley and Mr. IHM a m. Would you agree?

Canada has a right to be proud of it. It sets higher standards than have been set for any other country I know. What, exactly, does it promise to those employees who are affected by it? First, it sets a standard 8 hour day and a 40 hour week, with overtime limited to 8 hours a week, and paid for at time-and-a-half.

Would you name them? S Weather p. Show p. Emilicn Le-cours with a large attendance. After the business was over, the Juniors, who always put on the May program in honor of the mothers, enacted a little skit. On each mother, they pinned a rose. In May. One of these numbers is drawn and the holder of the number is the Mother of the Year, until the next May Mrs. Orvil Anderson was the lucky mother. Lecours pinned a corsage on her. Solomon, gave a shower at the home of Mrs.

She received several gifts, j which her sister Lois, helped her open. The room was decorated in pink and white. Following a short musical program refreshments were served by Mrs.

Solomon and her helpers. Misses Linda and Doreen Peasley. Baby christened al St. Gary Fuller. Ville Le-moyne. Anthony’s Church. Father E. Herbert Wheeler n aunt. The baby wore a long white embroidered silk robe. Mont-treah Following the ceremony the parents entertained the immediate families, at their home. Among the guests were Mr.

Lloyd Fuller. Rose Da igle in Newport, where all enjoyed a turkey dinner. James were quests for the dinner and afterward showed travel slides of the Western States which were most interesting. The couple were introduced by Mrs. Duncan Graham. Members each expressed appreciation to them for the pleasant entertainment. James Stevens. Donovan Russell with a gift from the A.

Taboo, censoring and the human brain. Language Sciences Linguistic interdiction: Its status quaestionis and possible future research lines. Euphemisms and Bible Translations. Pizarro Pedraza, A. Novel insights from cognitive perspectives. Mouton De Gruyter. Which is the euphemism? Are some words intrinsically nasty? Why is the vagina called a pussy? How are euphemism and dysphemism to be defined?

Is euphemism necessarily tied in with taboo? What topics are taboo? Do euphemism and dysphemism reflect the intrinsic conflict between intellect and body within human beings?

What sorts of euphemisms are there? Where do conventional euphemisms and dysphemisms come from? How are euphemism and dysphemism related to one another? How are they related to neutral terms, if there are such things? Why is it that the euphemism of yesteryear e.

How do euphemism and dysphemism relate to slang and jargons? What makes people swear? How many euphemisms are there in English for the genital organs? All these questions and many more are broached in this book. Like many books, this one came to be written as the result of an accident. This seems to reflect the view that the vocabulary used by the upper classes was clearly superior to that used by the lower classes, a view that was, of course, held and propagated by the upper classes.

Whether or not this is an appropriate inference from the text above, it is historically false. Because Kate Burridge had worked with, among other things, the language of Middle Dutch medical texts, we got together to compare euphemism in present-day English and in Middle Dutch. The more deeply we delved into euphemism, the greater the project grew. We found it necessary to distinguish euphemisms from dysphemisms, then to sort them into types, next to tease out the effects of style and jargon, and so forth.

Before long, what began as a short paper, expanded into the present book. In the course of our investigations we discovered that, when it comes to largely oral traditions such as slang and obscenity, different dialect groups will frequently have different interpretations for a common form – which suggests that the common written language has a levelling effect on English dialects. One of the most striking effects of our journey into oral culture was to be sharply reminded of the delightful inventiveness of so much of its terminology; the overwhelming majority of language examples discussed in linguistic textbooks are sterile fragments of the rich language they supposedly identify.

We have found, on the contrary, that metaphor is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language but in thought and action. Our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphorical in nature.

We had a lot of fun gathering material for the book; and a lot of help getting it together. They are, of course, all blameless for the remaining flaws. Keith Allan is very grateful to the Department of Linguistics at the University of Arizona for generous access to facilities during the time he spent there. Perhaps we should add our thanks for the use of the facilities provided by our regular employers, Monash University and La Trobe University, respectively.

Finally, we pay tribute to Don Laycock who was especially generous in lending us his collection of Maledictas and one or two other texts; we were anticipating his advice on our final draft, but unfortunately he died long before it was finished. We think that Don might have enjoyed this book, even though he would not have agreed with everything in it.

Thanks Don, wherever you are. We offer Euphemism and Dysphemism to our readers with the wish that they will concomitantly enjoy the book and benefit, as we have done, from the study of its subject matter. An interesting perspective on the human psyche is to be gained from the study of euphemisms used as a shield against the disapprobation of our fellows or at worst death, and from the examination of dysphemisms used as a weapon against those we dislike or as a release valve against the vicissitudes of malign fate.

Many euphemisms and dysphemisms demonstrate the poetic inventiveness of ordinary people: they reveal a folk culture that has been paid too little attention by lexicographers, linguists, and literaticians – and, indeed, by the very folk who use them: you, me, our friends and relatives. HEROFie upon thee, art not ashamed? Of speaking honourably? Is not marriage honourable in a beggar? Is not your lord honourable without marriage? Ask my Lady Beatrice else; here she comes.

HEROWhy, how now? Do you speak in the sick tune? I scorn that with my heels. By my troth, I am exceeding ill – heigh-ho! Doth not my wit become me rarely? By my troth, I am sick. You have some moral in this benedictus. But be assured, dear reader, that you will not need help with the rest of this book.

And, as you turn to it, we entreat you to enjoy the products of the human mind as it confronts the problem of how to talk in different contexts about body parts, bodily functions, sex, lust, disapproval, anger, hate, disease, death, fear and God.

Ignoring knowledge is sickness. Lao Tsu Tao Te Ching 71 This book is a study of language and language use; and in the course of writing it, we, as professional linguists, made certain assumptions which may be neither familiar to nor shared by all our readers. In this chapter we will try to identify and clarify these assumptions, most of which are straightforward; but a few require fairly detailed explanation. We are confident that most readers will not regret the time taken to become familiar with our terminology before hurrying on to more exciting parts of the book.

In ordinary usage, utterances occur only in spoken language, but here we understand them to include segments of either speech or writing. They can be complete sentences or, in the case of speech, they are frequently just fragments of sentences. An utterance is brought into being by an act of speaking or writing, by what is more succinctly called a speech act – a term applied even to the act of producing a written utterance!

Usually, a speaker or writer makes a number of utterances to an audience that are linked by some sort of arrangement of related topics. There are many varieties of texts. Some involve the utterances of a single individual: for example, lectures, speeches, sermons, recitations, narratives and jokes. Others, like arguments, negotiations, interviews, conversations, debates etc. Even in casual conversations not everyone can talk at once; and there are certain sequencing conventions and cues which govern when and how the interlocutors take turns at speaking.

Hearers become speakers, while speakers in turn become hearers, and so forth. There are also ritual utterances, like those used in greetings and partings, or to show that one is paying attention to the speaker holding the turn, etc. Anyone who does not observe these sorts of conventions is considered uncooperative and even rude. We are confident that our readers will take this idiosyncrasy in their stride and still be able to enjoy the book.

We shall also assume that there is only the one Speaker at a time – which is in any case the norm. Hearer is normally individually identifiable to Speaker when the latter is speaking, and when writing a personal letter, but rarely in other varieties of written discourse.

Even though there is commonly more than the one Hearer at a time, we will assume in our discussion that there is only one. We have a little more troublesome terminology to explain at this point. In making an utterance, Speaker uses a form of words, the locution, to convey a certain message, the illocution.

These terms were originally introduced by J. Austin in see Austin , and have undergone some slight variation in meaning since then, cf. The same locution can be used to convey different messages, depending on the context of use. Conversely, the same illocution can be achieved using different locutions: for instance there are all sorts of locutions to convey that Speaker wants to be informed of the time, e.

Got the time? In the course of this book we will frequently be referring to locutions and illocutions, and the difference between them should be borne in mind. In this section we have described what we mean by Speaker, Hearer, utterance, speech act, reflexive-intention, locution and illocution. In making an utterance, Speaker will select particular forms in response to the degree of formality, informality and familiarity appropriate to the context of the utterance. Joos identified five levels of formality: frozen, formal, consultative, casual and intimate.

Style varies according to who we are and whom we are communicating with; whether we are speaking or writing; where we are and when the utterance takes place; what we are talking about; and how we feel about the whole situation.

If any one of these factors is changed, the style may well change accordingly. For any given utterance, there exists a wide variety of stylistic choices possible: not only lexical choices, although these are the most obvious, but also grammar, pronunciation, and paralinguistic features like gesture and facial expression.

Thus, euphemism and dysphemism which are themselves defined in ch. The word context can be interpreted in three ways, giving rise to three categories of context; and all three contribute significantly to the production and interpretation of utterances. Utterances link up with their co-text by including devices to mark topic continuity: e.

Carter ch. Utterances not only take from their co-text, they also give to it: what we say or write at any point is probably going to have an important bearing how a text will continue. Setting determines the choice of what are collectively known as deictic expressions: tense, personal pronouns identifying Speaker and Hearer, among others ; demonstratives this, that, yonder, etc.

The setting will also have a role to play in determining the topic and the linguistic register or jargon – that is, the variety of language associated with a particular occupational, institutional, or recreational group: e. The setting is also where and when paralanguage takes place, e. The most important category of context is the world spoken of and that includes the world written of. The world spoken of is the mental model of the world which we all construct in order to be able to produce or understand a text.

The world we construct can be our own version of the real world or perhaps a deliberately evoked fictional world – as in a futuristic novel, for example. A text is judged coherent where this world is internally consistent and generally accords with accepted human knowledge; even an imaginary world is necessarily interpreted in terms of the world of our experience. This is the most crucial category of context, because the two other categories are mostly only relevant by reference to it.

The co- text identifies entities, events, etc. Context is not only crucial in determining the meaning of an utterance; it is also critical in deciding what constitutes politeness. We will show that an expression will be understood as being either euphemistic inoffensive or dysphemistic offensive depending on the context any one or more of the three categories in which it is embedded. There are many different kinds of meaning, and distinguishing between them is tough, though not intolerable, for even the most perspicacious reader.

It would probably be helpful then if we identify those kinds of meaning which are of particular concern for this book. For us, sense and denotation are distinct types of meaning; reference is a kind of denotation. Finally, we define connotation, a term which we shall be using quite frequently, but whose meaning is much less controversial.

Nonetheless, suppose we look up the meaning of canine; what we would find given in the dictionary are the senses of the word: 1 canine It should be noted that they are translation equivalents independently of any particular context of use: the significant characteristic of sense that distinguishes it from the other kinds of meaning we shall shortly be discussing, is that it is decontextualized meaning, abstracted from innumerable occurrences of the word in texts looking back at the dictionary entries for canine, quoted above, you have to decide which of the four senses given is relevant to a particular context in which the word is used.

As Oscar Wilde reminded us in The Importance of Being Earnest Act I , the truth is never simple; and although denotations use the senses of expressions, the senses of expressions are gradually influenced by the denotata with which they come to be associated! Denotation is the meaning relation that holds between language expressions and the world spoken of. The world spoken of may be fictional i. The various types of non- referring expressions are identified in the following examples by upper case.

A Those denying the existence of the denotatum: GOD does not exist. Many authors, e. Bach , Lyons ch. We find these practices unsatisfactory when trying to account for nonreferring terms. Although this is not in itself of any import to the present book, it is in other work we have been involved with; and rather than be inconsistent with our terminology in different works, or to be false to our beliefs when writing this one, we have used the terminology we believe to be the most appropriate to the discussion of meaning in language.

Summing up so far: if we were asked the meaning i. Its denotation, however, will depend on the occasion Speaker utters it. Social and expressive information of this kind that attaches to meaning is connotation.

The connotations of a word or longer expression arise from our experiences, beliefs, and prejudices about the contexts in the expression is used.

Consequently, the connotations of an expression vary independently of its senses and denotations; they also vary between speech communities. Sets of words can have the same sense, but at the same time differ considerably in connotation. For example, each of the nouns dog, mutt, hound, cur, dish-licker, bow-wow, whelp, and mongrel typically denote a canine animal of either sex; but the lexemes have quite different connotations. Mutt, cur and whelp are pejorative – and therefore dysphemistic.

Dish-licker smacks of dog racing slang, and bow-wow either racing slang or baby-talk cp. Dog, however, connotes nothing in particular, being the unmarked lexeme among the others. Think of the different connotations that attach to the terms girl, woman, lady, chick, broad, madam, tart, bird, sheila all of which could potentially be used of the same person say, in her late twenties, and if she were to travel between U.

Connotation makes it extremely difficult to find cases of absolute identity of meaning between vocabulary items. It is rare to find words which are identical in all the associations they have taken on from the various contexts in which they are used.

Why are these matters relevant to the subject matter of this book? Well, it is the case that, on the one hand, some vocabulary items will need to be classified within a dictionary as typically euphemistic, e. Such classifications are a function of both the senses and connotations of the lexemes. Words are powerful things, and the reticence and fear that some taboo terms arouse in us can be strong.

The word cancer, for example, has come to be equated with malignancy, corruption, and death; so it is generally shunned. People generally prefer to talk about growths and tumours, both of which CAN be benign, whereas they believe cancer cannot. If this seems to imply that euphemism and dysphemism are matters of purely lexical choice, that is not in fact the case. We shall show, in the course of this book, that euphemism and dysphemism are principally determined by the choice of expression within a given context: both world spoken of, and the world spoken in.

We cannot properly judge something as euphemistic or dysphemistic without this information – which is why dictionaries of euphemisms are never entirely successful. The proof of this should become evident in various of the chapters that follow. There are, for instance, conventions governing how close to one another interlocutors should stand; how to begin and end phone conversations; how to show interest in what Speaker is saying; how to make requests politely or sharply; how to offer thanks; etc.

Grice recognizes four different kinds of cooperation governing the most typical forms of social behaviour. He formulates these as maxims prescribing the norms of behaviour which participants are expected to observe during a linguistic exchange, although they may on occasion choose not to do so.

The versions given here are neo-Gricean updates on the originals. We do not normally say things like My neighbour, who is a woman, is pregnant, because it contains an unnecessary relative clause; we know that if the neighbour is pregnant, it MUST be a woman. We, the authors, would be violating the maxim of quality if we were to say We believe this book is suitable bedtime reading for six year olds.

Thus, for example, one should ordinarily avoid saying things like There is a male adult human being in upright stance using his legs as a means of locomotion to propel himself up a series of flat-topped structures some fifteen centimeters high rather than This allows the hearer to seek the communicative purpose behind apparent violations of the maxims; e. Were there no cooperative principle, systematic communication would be impossible.

There would be no ground rules for deciding whether or not an utterance makes sense, nor what value should be put on it.

Conversely, speakers would have no ground rules for getting their message across to the audience. The principle of cooperative behaviour is motivated by conventions pertaining to face effects cf.

Face is going to be a very important concept for this book, and it behooves us to say something about it here. Strong feelings attach to face wants. On the other hand, if the outcome is a public self-image which surpasses the norm, i.

But if the outcome is merely a self-image consistent with the usual, if face has been simply maintained, then the person is unlikely to feel any strong emotions one way or another.

Every time we open our mouths, we have to consider whether what we say is likely to maintain, enhance, or damage our own face, as well as considering the effect of our utterance on others.

Just as we look after our own face self-respect , we are expected to be considerate of and look after the face- wants of others, turning a tactful blind eye, perhaps, or telling a white lie. How often have some of us bought a product simply to save the face of the salesperson – with a sneaking suspicion that the sales-pitch was engineered for precisely this outcome!

Depending on our own social attributes and on the situation itself, we will have to adjust the line we take during an exchange and adopt different face-saving strategies accordingly; that is, we will have to choose our language expressions, tone and quality of speaking, looks and gestures to produce just the desired face effects. Those who are skilled in face-work are described as having social savoir faire; they are said to be perceptive, and diplomatic. But of course not everyone is going to be the same.

Different groups play by different rules, and conventions will vary considerably between individuals even within the same community. Cultures can have very different norms too, and consequently quite different repertoires of face-work strategies. Non-native speakers are often unaware of these differences and because of this may on occasion cause offense. There are two co-existing aspects to face generally recognised, cf.

This is called positive face. The other aspect to face is the want of a person not to be imposed upon. It is a difficult game to play, requiring just the right amount of attention and perceptiveness. We do not want to be accused of being thick-skinned because we pay too little attention to our own face; but neither do we want to be seen as thin-skinned because we pay too much attention to it. As we remarked earlier, the default situation for non-hostile social interaction is a mutual expectation that the participants will try to avoid any potential face affront to the others.

All societies have strategies for avoiding encounters that are potentially face-threatening, for example by using go-betweens or intermediaries. Avoidance relationships in the kinship systems of certain Australian Aboriginal societies, for example, lead to social manoeuvres of a spectacular kind, cf. Frazer , Dixon A critical comment can be ameliorated with some sort of hedging phrase to soften the potential face affront to the hearer.

In response to an invitation, an expression of regretted inability is generally preferable to downright refusal. Compare some of the possible responses to the offer Do you want to come out for a meal tonight? Refusals and denials of any sort are potentially hazardous to face and either of the first two responses can be used to hurt or offend the offerer; although 2 is slightly better than 1. The third response, expressing inability is more polite and therefore more considerate of face.

It saves the situation by indicating that the relationship is still where it was. Generally speaking, the greater the on-coming face-affront, the more excessive is the politeness shown. The notion of face is useful in distinguishing between types of Hearers and overhearers. We define Hearer as anyone whom, at the time of utterance, Speaker reflexively-intends should recognize the illocutionary point of the utterance i.

Goffman Any other person hearing the utterance is an overhearer, i. A bystander within earshot was not originally intended as a Hearer and may, depending on the circumstances, accept or reject the role of Hearer without loss of face. The cooperative principle and matters of face are relevant to the subject matter of this book because it is principally about euphemism and dysphemism, and we shall define both of them in terms of face affects.

It is therefore important not only to know what face affects are, but also how they relate to other politeness phenomena and conventions for language behaviour. Face affronts are typically dysphemistic, and therefore potential face affronts are sometimes avoided, or at least ameliorated, by the use of euphemisms.

In the production of social harmony, euphemism and dysphemism are key performers. Euphemism is characterized by avoidance language and evasive expression; that is, Speaker uses words as a protective shield against the anger or disapproval of other natural or supernatural beings. Dysphemism is, roughly speaking, the contrary of euphemism. Investigating dysphemism, we examine the verbal resources for being offensive, being abusive, and just letting off steam. And we also set forth a classification of euphemisms and dysphemisms according to their formal and functional characteristics.

For instance we include examples like the following. The list is extremely heterogeneous and seemingly endless; but in the chapters that follow we attempt to impose order on apparent chaos. When we seek to explain the sources for some of the metaphors and figures which have been created for euphemistic or dysphemistic purposes, we step into lexicology.

But we emphasize that our book is NOT and was never intended to be a dictionary of euphemism and dysphemism; there are already many such volumes in existence: e. Our aim is not to outdo or even replicate these treasure troves of euphemism and dysphemism, so you, the reader, will probably be able to think up many more examples of euphemistic and dysphemistic usage than we shall write about. As we have said, we offer an analysis of the motivations behind these different kinds of language use, a classification of them, an occasional history, and a functional account of the various expressions of euphemism and dysphemism.

By and large, euphemism and dysphemism are obverse sides of the same coin. In developing our account of them, we needed to show how it is that they particularly euphemism have come to be so consistently and so ubiquitously maintained in human society.

On the face of it, euphemism is not such a big deal in English as in, say, Austronesian societies in which violations of taboo are expected to have dire consequences. It seems to us that the real difference is in societal attitudes to violations of the prevailing social norms.

The comparatively mild censure with which present day North American and European societies treat blasphemy, political dissent, and even crimes against property and persons, are comparatively recent innovations: such transgressions have been, and in some cases still are, amongst other things, violations of taboos.

One does not need to look far back in history to find dire consequences for people foolish enough to be heard or observed violating them. Looked at this way, the social constraints on the observation of verbal taboos in places like Austronesia seem less exotic; in any case, many of the old taboos there are disappearing under the influence of that hegemonous alien culture spreading down from the northern hemisphere. Sure, there are cultural differences with respect to the use of euphemism and dysphemism, but they are differences in degree rather than differences in kind.

Attitudes to bodily effluviae, body parts, to notions of social status and the like, to death, disease, to dangerous animals, and to the supernatural, vary tremendously between cultures; but essentially these same parameters recur in every culture and subculture to motivate euphemism and dysphemism.

The point of view we have just described was determined after careful investigation of euphemism in a wide variety of languages, and that is why we shall occasionally mention languages other than present day English.

Devon Sawa Alex Browning. Ali Larter Clear Rivers. Kerr Smith Carter Horton. Kristen Cloke Valerie Lewton. Daniel Roebuck Agent Weine. Roger Guenveur Smith Agent Schreck. Seann William Scott Billy Hitchcock.

Tony Todd Bludworth. Amanda Detmer Terry Chaney. Brendan Fehr George Waggner. Forbes Angus Larry Murnau. Lisa Marie Caruk Christa Marsh. Christine Chatelain Blake Dreyer.

Barbara Tyson Barbara Browning. Robert Wisden Ken Browning. Lynn Johnson Mrs. Larry Gilman Mr. James Wong. More like this. Storyline Edit.

 
 

Blair Dane

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